Automatische Anwahl mit DIALD (PPP-Zugang)
SuSE-Linux 5.3 (Version 6.3 siehe unten)


Bemerkungen:
Diald wird mit YAST installiert und die Konfigiration des diald wie vorgegeben gelassen
Man baechte, dass für das Funktionieren des DIALD unbedingr erforderlich ist
dass der Kernel SLIP-Unterstützung hat (auch wenn man nur PPP betreibt).
Eventuell ist ein neuer Kernel zu compilieren.
# /etc/dialdppp.start
mode ppp
defaultroute
crtscts
local 192.168.2.3
remote 0.0.0.0
netmask 255.255.255.0
speed 57600
connect 'chat -v -f /etc/chatppp.rc'
#/etc/chatppp.rc
TIMEOUT 180
ABORT 'NO CARRIER'
ABORT BUSY
ABORT 'NO DIALTONE'
ABORT ERROR
'' +++ATZ
OK ATDT01070072138340
CONNECT ''
Es kann sein, daß in /etc/ppp/option noch einige Eintragungen vorgenommen werden müssen:

# /etc/ppp/options

modem
lock
crtscts
defaultroute
debug
user za186
Das Passwort und die Benutzerkennung müssen in chat-secrets bzw. in pap-secrets eingetragen werden:

# /etc/ppp/chap-secrets

# Secrets for authentication using CHAP
# client        server  secret                  IP addresses
za186           *       ****** (hier Ihr Passwort eintragen)
# /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
# Secrets for authentication using PAP
# client        server  secret                  IP addresses
"za186"         *       "******" (hier Ihr Passwort eintragen)
Gestartet wird der diald mit : /usr/sbin/diald /dev/modem -f /etc/dialdppp.start

Am besten. man traegt sich einen Alias in seiner .profile-Datei ein:

alias startdialdppp="/usr/sbin/diald /dev/modem -f /etc/dialdppp.start"


Beendet wird diald durch
killproc -TERM /usr/sbin/diald
oder durch killall diald.


Sollte beim Überprüfen mit tail -f /var/log/messages die Fehlermeldung:
"cannot replace the existing default ppp rout" (o.ä.) erscheinen,  muss ein Eintrag defaultroute aus options oder dialdppp.start entfernt werden.


SuSE-Linux 6.3

Der diald bei SuSE-Linux 6.3 machte Schwierigkeiten.
Nachdem ich ca 3 Stunden herumexperimentiert hatte, habe ich kurzerhand den Diald der Linux-Distribution
SuSE 6.0 installiert.
Der funktionierte auf Anhieb.
Hier die Konfigurationsdateien:

# /etc/dialdppp.start

mode ppp
#defaultroute
crtscts
local 192.168.2.101
remote 129.13.250.22
netmask 255.255.255.0
speed 57600
connect 'chat -v -f /etc/chatppp.rc'
Das Chat-Script /etc/chatppp.rc,  die PPP-Optionen in /etc/ppp/options sowie die Passwort-Dateien
in /etc/ppp/chap-secrets und /etc/ppp/pap-secrets habe ich so gelassen wie oben beschrieben.

Die Datei /etc/diald.conf habe ich so gelassen, wie sie bei der Installation eingestellt war.
(siehe unten als Anhang)

Gestartet wird der diald ganauso wie oben angeben:

alias startdialdppp="/usr/sbin/diald /dev/modem -f /etc/dialdppp.start"


Anhang: /etc/diald.conf
# This is a pretty complicated set of filter rules.
# (These are the rules I use myself.)
#
# I've divided the rules up into four sections.
# TCP packets, UDP packets, ICMP packets and a general catch all rule
# at the end.
 

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Rules for TCP packets.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# General comments on the rule set:
#
# In general we would like to treat only data on a TCP link as signficant
# for timeouts. Therefore, we try to ignore packets with no data.
# Since the shortest possible set of headers in a TCP/IP packet is 40 bytes.
# Any packet with length 40 must have no data riding in it.
# We may miss some empty packets this way (optional routing information
# and other extras may be present in the IP header), but we should get
# most of them. Note that we don't want to filter out packets with
# tcp.live clear, since we use them later to speedup disconnects
# on some TCP links.
#
# We also want to make sure WWW packets live even if the TCP socket
# is shut down. We do this because WWW doesn't keep connections open
# once the data has been transfered, and it would be annoying to have the link
# keep bouncing up and down every time you get a document.
#
# Outside of WWW the most common use of TCP is for long lived connections,
# that once they are gone mean we no longer need the network connection.
# We don't neccessarily want to wait 10 minutes for the connection
# to go down when we don't have any telnet's or rlogin's running,
# so we want to speed up the timeout on TCP connections that have
# shutdown. We do this by catching packets that do not have the live flag set.

# --- start of rule set proper ---

# When initiating a connection we only give the link 15 seconds initially.
# The idea here is to deal with possibility that the network on the opposite
# end of the connection is unreachable. In this case you don't really
# want to give the link 10 minutes up time. With the rule below
# we only give the link 15 seconds initially. If the network is reachable
# then we will normally get a response that actually contains some
# data within 15 seconds. If this causes problems because you have a slow
# response time at some site you want to regularly access, you can either
# increase the timeout or remove this rule.
accept tcp 15 tcp.syn

# Keep named xfers from holding the link up
ignore tcp tcp.dest=tcp.domain
ignore tcp tcp.source=tcp.domain

# (Ack! SCO telnet starts by sending empty SYNs and only opens the
# connection if it gets a response. Sheesh..)
accept tcp 5 ip.tot_len=40,tcp.syn

# keep empty packets from holding the link up (other than empty SYN packets)
ignore tcp ip.tot_len=40,tcp.live

# make sure http transfers hold the link for 2 minutes, even after they end.
# NOTE: Your /etc/services may not define the tcp service www, in which
# case you should comment out the following two lines or get a more
# up to date /etc/services file. See the FAQ for information on obtaining
# a new /etc/services file.
accept tcp 120 tcp.dest=tcp.www
accept tcp 120 tcp.source=tcp.www

# SSL connections are usually for secure http so treat them like http.
# NOTE: Your /etc/services may not define the tcp service ssl, in which
# case you should comment out the following two lines or get a more
# up to date /etc/services file. See the FAQ for information on obtaining
# a new /etc/services file.
keepup tcp 120 tcp.dest=tcp.ssl
keepup tcp 120 tcp.source=tcp.ssl

# Once the link is no longer live, we try to shut down the connection
# quickly. Note that if the link is already down, a state change
# will not bring it back up.
keepup tcp 5 !tcp.live
ignore tcp !tcp.live

# an ftp-data or ftp connection can be expected to show reasonably frequent
# traffic.
accept tcp 120 tcp.dest=tcp.ftp
accept tcp 120 tcp.source=tcp.ftp

#NOTE: ftp-data is not defined in the /etc/services file provided with
# the latest versions of NETKIT, so I've got this commented out here.
# If you want to define it add the following line to your /etc/services:
# ftp-data        20/tcp
# and uncomment the following two rules.
#accept tcp 120 tcp.dest=tcp.ftp-data
#accept tcp 120 tcp.source=tcp.ftp-data

# If we don't catch it above, give the link 10 minutes up time.
accept tcp 600 any

# Rules for UDP packets
#
# We time out domain requests right away, we just want them to bring
# the link up, not keep it around for very long.
# This is because the network will usually come up on a call
# from the resolver library (unless you have all your commonly
# used addresses in /etc/hosts, in which case you will discover
# other problems.)
# Note that you should not make the timeout shorter than the time you
# might expect your DNS server to take to respond. Otherwise
# when the initial link gets established there might be a delay
# greater than this between the initial series of packets before
# any packets that keep the link up longer pass over the link.

# Don't bring the link up for rwho.
ignore udp udp.dest=udp.who
ignore udp udp.source=udp.who
# Don't bring the link up for RIP.
ignore udp udp.dest=udp.route
ignore udp udp.source=udp.route
# Don't bring the link up for NTP or timed.
ignore udp udp.dest=udp.ntp
ignore udp udp.source=udp.ntp
ignore udp udp.dest=udp.timed
ignore udp udp.source=udp.timed
# Don't bring up on domain name requests between two running nameds.
ignore udp udp.dest=udp.domain,udp.source=udp.domain
# Bring up the network whenever we make a domain request from someplace
# other than named.
accept udp 30 udp.dest=udp.domain
accept udp 30 udp.source=udp.domain
# Do the same for netbios-ns broadcasts
# NOTE: your /etc/services file may not define the netbios-ns service
# in which case you should comment out the next three lines.
ignore udp udp.source=udp.netbios-ns,udp.dest=udp.netbios-ns
accept udp 30 udp.dest=udp.netbios-ns
accept udp 30 udp.source=udp.netbios-ns
# keep routed and gated transfers from holding the link up
ignore udp tcp.dest=udp.route
ignore udp tcp.source=udp.route
# Anything else gest 2 minutes.
accept udp 120 any
# Catch any packets that we didn't catch above and give the connection
# 30 seconds of live time.
accept any 30 any



Roland Bernert, Dezember 1999